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Anaerobic digestion is a series of processes in which micro-organisms break down biodegradable material in the absence of oxygen, used for industrial or domestic purposes to manage waste and/or to release energy.
It is widely used as part of the process to treat wastewater. As part of an integrated waste management system, anaerobic digestion reduces the emission of landfill gas into the atmosphere.
Anaerobic digestion is widely used as a renewable energy source because the process produces a methane and carbon dioxide rich biogas suitable for energy production, helping to replace fossil fuels. The nutrient-rich digestate which is also produced can be used as fertiliser.
The digestion process begins with bacterial hydrolysis of the input materials in order to break down insoluble organic polymers such as carbohydrates and make them available for other bacteria. Acidogenic bacteria then convert the sugars and amino acids into carbon dioxide, hydrogen, ammonia, and organic acids. Acetogenic bacteria then convert these resulting organic acids into acetic acid, along with additional ammonia, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide. Finally, methanogens convert these products to methane and carbon dioxide.
Scientific interest in the manufacturing of gas produced by the natural decomposition of organic matter, was first reported in the seventeenth century by Robert Boyle and Stephen Hale, who noted that flammable gas was released by disturbing the sediment of streams and lakes. In 1808, Sir Humphry Davy determined that methane was present in the gases produced by cattle manure. The first anaerobic digester was built by a leper colony in Bombay, India in 1859. In 1895 the technology was developed in Exeter, England, where a septic tank was used to generate gas for the sewer gas destructor lamp, a type of gas lighting. Also in England, in 1904, the first dual purpose tank for both sedimentation and sludge treatment was installed in Hampton. In 1907, in Germany, a patent was issued for the Imhoff tank, an early form of digester.
Through scientific research anaerobic digestion gained academic recognition in the 1930s. This research led to the discovery of anaerobic bacteria, the micro-organisms that facilitate the process. Further research was carried out to investigate the conditions under which methanogenic bacteria were able to grow and reproduce. This work was developed during World War II where in both Germany and France there was an increase in the application of anaerobic digestion for the treatment of manure.
Anaerobic digestion is particularly suited to wet organic material and is commonly used for effluent and sewage treatment. Anaerobic digestion is a simple process that can greatly reduce the amount of organic matter which might otherwise be destined to be dumped at sea, land-filled or burnt in an incinerator.
Almost any organic material can be processed with anaerobic digestion. This includes biodegradable waste materials such as waste paper, grass clippings, leftover food, sewage and animal waste. The exception to this is woody wastes that are largely unaffected by digestion as most anaerobes are unable to degrade lignin. The exception being xylophalgeous anaerobes (lignin consumers), as used in the process for organic breakdown of cellulosic material by a cellulosic ethanol start-up company in the U.S. Anaerobic digesters can also be fed with specially grown energy crops such as silage for dedicated biogas production. In Germany and continental Europe these facilities are referred to as biogas plants. A co- digestion or co-fermentation plant is typically an agricultural anaerobic digester that accepts two or more input materials for simultaneous digestion.
In developing countries simple home and farm-based anaerobic digestion systems offer the potential for cheap, low-cost energy for cooking and lighting. Anaerobic digestion facilities have been recognised by the United Nations Development Programme as one of the most useful decentralised sources of energy supply. From 1975, China and India have both had large government-backed schemes for adaptation of small biogas plants for use in the household for cooking and lighting. Presently, projects for anaerobic digestion in the developing world can gain financial support through the United Nations Clean Development Mechanism if they are able to show they provide reduced carbon emissions.
Utilising anaerobic digestion technologies can help to reduce the emission of greenhouse gasses in a number of key ways:
Replacement of fossil fuels.
Reducing or eliminating the energy footprint of waste treatment plants.
Reducing methane emission from landfills.
Displacing industrially-produced chemical fertilisers.
Reducing vehicle movements.
Reducing electrical grid transportation losses.
Methane and power produced in anaerobic digestion facilities can be utilised to replace energy derived from fossil fuels, and hence reduce emissions of greenhouse gasses. This is due to the fact that the carbon in biodegradable material is part of a carbon cycle. The carbon released into the atmosphere from the combustion of biogas has been removed by plants in order for them to grow in the recent past. This can have occurred within the last decade, but more typically within the last growing season. If the plants are re- grown, taking the carbon out of the atmosphere once more, the system will be carbon neutral. This contrasts to carbon in fossil fuels that has been sequestered in the earth for many millions of years, the combustion of which increases the overall levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.
If the putrescible waste processed in anaerobic digesters was disposed of in a landfill, it would break down naturally and often anaerobically. In this case the gas will eventually escape into the atmosphere. As methane is about twenty times more potent as a greenhouse gas as carbon dioxide this has significant negative environmental effects.
Digester liquor can be used as a fertiliser supplying vital nutrients to soils. The solid, fibrous component of the digested material can be used as a soil conditioner to increase the organic content of soils. The liquor can be used instead of chemical fertilisers which require large amounts of energy to produce and transport. The use of manufactured fertilisers is therefore more carbon intensive than the use of anaerobic digester liquor fertiliser. In countries, such as Spain where there are many organically depleted soils the markets for the digested solids can be equally as important as the biogas.
In countries that collect household waste, the utilisation of local anaerobic digestion facilities can help to reduce the amount of waste that requires transportation to centralised landfill sites or incineration facilities. This reduced burden on transportation reduces carbon emissions from the collection vehicles. If localised anaerobic digestion facilities are embedded within an electrical distribution network, they can help reduce the electrical losses that are associated with transporting electricity over a national grid.
Biogas from sewage works is sometimes used to run a gas engine to produce electrical power; some or all of which can be used to run the sewage works. Some waste heat from the engine is then used to heat the digester. It turns out that the waste heat is generally enough to heat the digester to the required temperatures. The power potential from sewage works is limited – in the UK there are about 80 MW total of such generation, with potential to increase to 150 MW, which is insignificant compared to the average power demand in the UK of about 35,000MW. The scope for biogas generation from non-sewage waste biological matter – energy crops, food waste, abattoir waste etc is much higher, estimated to be capable of about 3,000 MW. Farm biogas plants using animal waste and energy crops are expected to contribute to reducing CO2 emissions and strengthen the grid while providing UK farmers with additional revenues.
There are a number of micro-organisms that are involved in the process of anaerobic digestion including acetic acid-forming bacteria (acetogens) and methane-forming archaea (methanogens). These organisms feed upon the initial feed-stock, which undergoes a number of different processes converting it to intermediate molecules including sugars, hydrogen, and acetic acid, before finally being converted to biogas.
Different species of bacteria are able to survive at different temperature ranges. Ones living optimally at temperatures between 35–40 °C are called mesophiles or mesophilic bacteria. Some of the bacteria can survive at the hotter and more hostile conditions of 55–60 °C, these are called thermophiles or thermophilic bacteria. Methanogens come from the domain of archaea. This family includes species that can grow in the hostile conditions of hydrothermal vents. These species are more resistant to heat and can therefore operate at high temperatures, a property that is unique to thermophiles.
As with aerobic systems the bacteria in anaerobic systems the growing and reproducing micro-organisms within them require a source of elemental oxygen to survive. In an anaerobic system there is an absence of gaseous oxygen. Gaseous oxygen is prevented from entering the system through physical containment in sealed tanks. Anaerobes access oxygen from sources other than the surrounding air. The oxygen source for these micro-organisms can be the organic material itself or alternatively may be supplied by inorganic oxides from within the input material. When the oxygen source in an anaerobic system is derived from the organic material itself, then the 'intermediate' end products are primarily alcohols, aldehydes, and organic acids plus carbon dioxide. In the presence of specialised methanogens, the intermediates are converted to the 'final' end products of methane, carbon dioxide with trace levels of hydrogen sulphide. In an anaerobic system the majority of the chemical energy contained within the starting material is released by methanogenic bacteria as methane.
Populations of anaerobic micro-organisms typically take a significant period of time to establish themselves to be fully effective. It is therefore common practice to introduce anaerobic micro-organisms from materials with existing populations, a process known as "seeding" the digesters, and typically takes place with the addition of sewage sludge or cattle slurry.
Anaerobic digesters can be designed and engineered to operate using a number of different process configurations:
Batch or continuous.
Temperature: Mesophilic or thermophilic.
Solids content: High solids or low solids.
Complexity: Single stage or multistage.
A batch system is the simplest form of digestion. Biomass is added to the reactor at the start of the process in a batch and is sealed for the duration of the process. Batch reactors suffer from odour issues that can be a severe problem when they are emptied. Typically biogas production will be formed with a normal distribution pattern over time. The operator can use this fact to determine when they believe the process of digestion of the organic matter has completed. As the batch digestion is simple and requires less equipment and lower levels of design work it is typically a cheaper form of digestion.
In continuous digestion processes organic matter is constantly or added in stages to the reactor. Here the end products are constantly or periodically removed, resulting in constant production of biogas. Examples of this form of anaerobic digestion include, continuous stirred-tank reactors (CSTRs), Up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), Expanded granular sludge bed (EGSB) and Internal circulation reactors (IC).
There are two conventional operational temperature levels for anaerobic digesters, which are determined by the species of methanogens in the digesters: Mesophilic which takes place optimally around 37-41 °C or at ambient temperatures between 20- 45 °C where mesophiles are the primary micro-organism present. Thermophilic which takes place optimally around 50-52 °C at elevated temperatures up to 70 °C where thermophiles are the primary micro-organisms present.
A limit case has been reached in Bolivia, with anaerobic digestion in temperature working conditions less than 10 °C. The anaerobic process is very slow, taking more than three times the mesophilicnormal time process.There are a greater number of species of mesophiles than thermophiles. These bacteria are also more tolerant to changes in environmental conditions than thermophiles. Mesophilic systems are therefore considered to be more stable than thermophilic digestion systems. As mentioned above, thermophilic digestion systems are considered to be less stable, however the increased temperatures facilitate faster reaction rates and hence faster gas yields. Operation at higher temperatures facilitates greater sterilisation of the end digestate.
A drawback of operating at thermophilic temperatures is that more heat energy input is required to achieve the correct operational temperatures. This increase in energy may not be outweighed by the increase in the outputs of biogas from the systems.
Typically there are two different operational parameters associated with the solids content of the feed-stock to the digesters:
Digesters can either be designed to operate in a high solids content, with a total suspended solids (TSS) concentration greater than ~20%, or a low solids concentration less than ~15%.
High-solids digesters process a thick slurry that requires more energy input to move and process the feed-stock. The thickness of the material may also lead to associated problems with abrasion. High-solids digesters will typically have a lower land requirement due to the lower volumes associated with the moisture.
Low-solids digesters can transport material through the system using standard pumps that require significantly lower energy input. Low solids digesters require a larger amount of land than high-solids due to the increase volumes associated with the increased liquid-to-feed-stock ratio of the digesters. There are benefits associated with operation in a liquid environment as it enables more thorough circulation of materials and contact between the bacteria and their food. This enables the bacteria to more readily access the substances they are feeding off and increases the speed of gas yields.
Digestion systems can be configured with different levels of complexity:
One-stage or single-stage.
Two-stage or multistage.
A single-stage digestion system is one in which all of the biological reactions occur within a single sealed reactor or holding tank. Utilising a single stage reduces construction costs, however facilitates less control of the reactions occurring within the system. Acidogenic bacteria, through the production of acids, reduce the pH of the tank. Methanogenic bacteria, as outlined earlier, operate in a strictly defined pH range. Therefore the biological reactions of the different species in a single stage reactor can be in direct competition with each other. Another one-stage reaction system is an anaerobic lagoon. These lagoons are pond-like earthen basins used for the treatment and long-term storage of manures. Here the anaerobic reactions are contained within the natural anaerobic sludge contained in the pool.
In a two-stage or multi-stage digestion system different digestion vessels are optimised to bring maximum control over the bacterial communities living within the digesters. Acidogenic bacteria produce organic acids and more quickly grow and reproduce than methanogenic bacteria. Methanogenic bacteria require stable pH and temperature in order to optimise their performance.